We examined whether the Golgi apparatus (GA) is fragmented in nigral neurons in 18 cases with Parkinson's disease (PD) and in 8 control cases. The nigral neurons in cases with PD showed various degrees of Lewy pathology with alpha-synuclein immunohistochemistry, and we divided the neurons into three subtypes according to differences in alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity: (1) neurons without pale bodies or Lewy bodies, (2) neurons with pale bodies, and (3) neurons with Lewy bodies. In controls, we did not observe fragmented GA in nigral neurons by immunocytochemistry with an anti-TGN46 antibody. In PD, the GA was fragmented in 3% of the nigral neurons without inclusions, and in 5% of the neurons with Lewy bodies. In contrast, fragmented GA was noted in 19% of the neurons containing pale bodies. Since pale bodies represent early stages in the development of brainstem Lewy bodies, our results suggest that the cytotoxicity of alpha-synuclein-positive aggregates is reduced in the process of Lewy body formation.