Synaptic input to OFF parasol ganglion cells in macaque retina

J Comp Neurol. 2006 Sep 1;498(1):46-57. doi: 10.1002/cne.21040.


A Neurobiotin-injected OFF parasol cell from midperipheral macaque retina was studied by reconstruction of serial ultrathin sections and compared with ON parasol cells studied previously. In most respects, the synaptic inputs to the two subtypes were similar. Only a few of the amacrine cell processes that provided input to the labeled OFF parasol ganglion cell dendrites made or received inputs within the series, and none of these interactions were with the bipolar cells or other amacrine cells presynaptic to the OFF parasol cell. These findings suggest that the direct inhibitory input to OFF parasol cells originates from other areas of the retina. OFF parasol cells were known to receive inputs from two types of diffuse bipolar cells. To identify candidates for the presynaptic amacrine cells, OFF parasol cells were labeled with Lucifer yellow by using a juxtacellular labeling technique, and amacrine cells known to costratify with them were labeled via immunofluorescent methods. Appositions were observed with amacrine cells containing immunoreactive calretinin, parvalbumin, choline acetylatransferase, and G6-Gly, a cholecystokinin precursor. These findings suggest that the inhibitory input to parasol cells conveys information about several different attributes of visual stimuli and, particularly, about their global properties.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetylcholine / metabolism
  • Amacrine Cells / metabolism
  • Amacrine Cells / ultrastructure
  • Animals
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Cell Shape / physiology
  • Cholecystokinin / metabolism
  • Dendrites / metabolism
  • Dendrites / ultrastructure
  • Female
  • Isoquinolines
  • Macaca / anatomy & histology*
  • Macaca / physiology
  • Macaca fascicularis / anatomy & histology
  • Macaca fascicularis / physiology
  • Macaca mulatta / anatomy & histology
  • Macaca mulatta / physiology
  • Male
  • Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
  • Neural Inhibition / physiology
  • Presynaptic Terminals / metabolism
  • Presynaptic Terminals / ultrastructure*
  • Retina / physiology
  • Retina / ultrastructure*
  • Retinal Bipolar Cells / metabolism
  • Retinal Bipolar Cells / ultrastructure
  • Retinal Ganglion Cells / metabolism
  • Retinal Ganglion Cells / ultrastructure*
  • Synaptic Transmission / physiology*
  • Vision, Ocular / physiology
  • Visual Pathways / metabolism
  • Visual Pathways / ultrastructure*


  • Calcium-Binding Proteins
  • Isoquinolines
  • Cholecystokinin
  • lucifer yellow
  • Acetylcholine