Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are known to have a more benign course in children than in adults. Although the natural history of HCV recurrence after liver transplantation has been well studied in adult patients, much less is known about HCV recurrence after liver transplantation in pediatric patients. Herein, we report a case of a pediatric patient with HCV presumably acquired through vertical transmission. She underwent liver transplantation at 14 yr of age. The first three yr after liver transplantation were uneventful. However, in the past 12 months she has been hospitalized twice after developing ascites, hematemesis and esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)-documented esophageal varices. Post-transplant biopsy has demonstrated chronic inflammation complicated with active hepatitis C and stage 2-3 scarring. This case report demonstrates the need for further epidemiologic studies to study the natural history of the rate of HCV recurrence after liver transplantation in the pediatric population.