Role of RhoA inactivation in reduced cell proliferation of human airway smooth muscle by simvastatin

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2006 Dec;35(6):722-9. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2006-0034OC. Epub 2006 Jul 20.

Abstract

Enhanced proliferation of smooth muscle cells contributes to airway remodeling of bronchial asthma. Recently, statins, inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, have been shown to inhibit proliferation of both vascular and airway smooth muscle cells independently of lowering cholesterol. However, the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to determine molecular processes by which statins inhibit proliferation of human bronchial smooth muscle cells. Simvastatin (0.1-1.0 muM) significantly inhibited cell proliferation and DNA synthesis induced by FBS in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of simvastatin were antagonized by mevalonate and geranylgeranylpyrophosphate, whereas the effects were not affected by squalene and farnesylpyrophosphate. The antiproliferative effects of simvastatin were mimicked by GGTI-286, a geranylgeranyltransferase-I inhibitor, C3 exoenzyme, an inhibitor of Rho, and Y-27632, an inhibitor of Rho-kinase, a target protein of RhoA. Western blot analysis showed that the level of membrane localization of RhoA (active Rho) was markedly increased by FBS, and that the level of active RhoA increased by FBS was reduced by simvastatin. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of simvastatin on FBS-induced RhoA activation was also antagonized by geranylgeranylpyrophosphate, but not by farnesylpyrophosphate. Because these isoprenoids are required for prenylation of small G proteins RhoA and Ras, respectively, the present results demonstrate that an inhibition in airway smooth muscle cell proliferation by simvastatin is due to prevention of geranylgeranylation of RhoA, not farnesylation of Ras. Therefore, statins may have therapeutic potential for prohibiting airway remodeling in bronchial asthma.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • ADP Ribose Transferases / pharmacology
  • Alkyl and Aryl Transferases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Alkyl and Aryl Transferases / metabolism
  • Amides / pharmacology
  • Anti-Asthmatic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Botulinum Toxins / pharmacology
  • Bronchi / drug effects*
  • Bronchi / metabolism
  • Cell Membrane / drug effects
  • Cell Membrane / metabolism
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • DNA / biosynthesis
  • DNA / drug effects
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Enzyme Activation / drug effects
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism
  • Leucine / analogs & derivatives
  • Leucine / pharmacology
  • Mitogens / pharmacology
  • Muscle, Smooth / drug effects*
  • Muscle, Smooth / metabolism
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein Prenylation / drug effects
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism
  • Pyridines / pharmacology
  • Simvastatin / pharmacology*
  • Terpenes / pharmacology
  • cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein / metabolism
  • rac1 GTP-Binding Protein / metabolism
  • rho-Associated Kinases
  • rhoA GTP-Binding Protein / antagonists & inhibitors
  • rhoA GTP-Binding Protein / metabolism*

Substances

  • Amides
  • Anti-Asthmatic Agents
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • GGTI 286
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Mitogens
  • Pyridines
  • RAC1 protein, human
  • Terpenes
  • RHOA protein, human
  • Y 27632
  • DNA
  • Simvastatin
  • ADP Ribose Transferases
  • exoenzyme C3, Clostridium botulinum
  • Alkyl and Aryl Transferases
  • geranylgeranyltransferase type-I
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • rho-Associated Kinases
  • Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
  • Botulinum Toxins
  • cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein
  • rac1 GTP-Binding Protein
  • rhoA GTP-Binding Protein
  • Leucine