B-Raf is a key regulatory molecule of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK). B-Raf differs from the other Raf isoforms in that it has a long amino-terminal region. By the use of probes based on the principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we found that this amino-terminal B-Raf-specific region is essential for homo-dimerization of B-Raf and hetero-dimerization of B-Raf and c-Raf at the plasma membrane, followed by phosphorylation of Thr118 in the amino-terminal B-Raf-specific region. HeLa cells expressing B-Raf, but not c-Raf, or a B-Raf mutant lacking the B-Raf-specific region, showed enhanced MEK phosphorylation upon stimulation with a calcium agonist. Furthermore, increases in the intracellular calcium concentration were found to be necessary for dimerization and sufficient for the plasma membrane translocation of B-Raf. Notably, in calcium ionophore-stimulated HeLa cells, B-Raf could propagate signals to MEK under the basal level of GTP-Ras. Thus, we propose that the hitherto unidentified function of the B-Raf amino-terminal region is to mediate calcium-dependent activation of B-Raf and the following MEK activation, which may occur in the absence of Ras activation.