Objective: This study evaluated changes in smoking-related beliefs and behavior following a brief, culturally adapted smoking cessation intervention for Chinese and Korean smokers.
Method: From May 2002 to March 2003, 66 smokers residing in or around southeastern Pennsylvania were randomly assigned to a theory-based smoking cessation intervention or general health counseling. Participants completed assessments of perceived risks of smoking, pros and cons of quitting, quitting self-efficacy, and distress at baseline and follow-up time points. Sessions were conducted in the participant's native language (Korean, Cantonese, or Mandarin). Both groups received nicotine replacement therapy.
Results: Overall, 38% of participants reported quitting smoking at 3-month follow-up. Quit rates were higher (52.6% among Chinese, 60.0% among Korean) in the intervention condition compared to the control condition (23.5% among Chinese, 40.0% among Korean) at 1-month, but not 3-month, follow-up. There was a main effect of treatment condition for self-efficacy with intervention participants reporting significantly higher levels of self-efficacy compared to control participants. Further, a treatment x time interaction was observed for cons of quitting, reflecting fewer cons in the intervention group than the control group at 1-month and 3-month follow-up.
Conclusion: A culturally adapted intervention for Chinese and Korean Americans can be effective in changing specific smoking-related cognitions and behavior. This study represents a promising first step toward advancing our understanding of the associations between smoking-related cognitions and behavior among Asian American smokers.