Background: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains a common complication of prematurity, with those being discharged on home oxygen at particularly high risk of adverse developmental outcomes.
Aims: To compare the developmental patterns, from 1 to 4 years, of extremely preterm infants with BPD discharged from hospital on home oxygen, extremely preterm infants with BPD discharged breathing room air, and extremely preterm infants without BPD.
Subjects: Two hundred and seventy-six infants with a gestational age of <28 weeks or birthweight <1000 g, free from sensory and motor disabilities who were followed up longitudinally to 4 years corrected age.
Outcome measures: Children were assessed on the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years corrected age, and the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities at 4 years corrected age.
Results: The developmental trajectories of the three groups did not differ significantly, however at 1 year corrected age the non-BPD group had significantly higher developmental scores than both BPD groups. At 2 years corrected age the non-BPD group had significantly higher developmental scores than the BPD-home oxygen group, and at 4 years corrected age no differences between the groups were evident.
Conclusions: Extremely preterm children with BPD exhibited an initial developmental lag compared to preterm peers. Children with BPD discharged breathing room air had developmental scores at 2 years corrected age that were comparable to the non-BPD group, but those discharged on home oxygen still had lower developmental scores. At 4 years, no differences between the groups were evident.