A potential molecular mechanism for hypersensitivity caused by formalin-inactivated vaccines

Nat Med. 2006 Aug;12(8):905-7. doi: 10.1038/nm1456. Epub 2006 Jul 23.

Abstract

Heat, oxidation and exposure to aldehydes create reactive carbonyl groups on proteins, targeting antigens to scavenger receptors. Formaldehyde is widely used in making vaccines, but has been associated with atypical enhanced disease during subsequent infection with paramyxoviruses. We show that carbonyl groups on formaldehyde-treated vaccine antigens boost T helper type 2 (T(H)2) responses and enhance respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease in mice, an effect partially reversible by chemical reduction of carbonyl groups.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigens, Viral / immunology
  • Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / cytology
  • Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / immunology
  • Eosinophilia / etiology
  • Eosinophilia / pathology
  • Formaldehyde*
  • Immunization / adverse effects*
  • Interferon-gamma / immunology
  • Interleukin-5 / immunology
  • Lung / pathology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Neutralization Tests
  • Ovalbumin / immunology
  • Respiratory Hypersensitivity / etiology*
  • Respiratory Hypersensitivity / pathology
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections / immunology
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections / prevention & control
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines / adverse effects
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines / immunology
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines / pharmacology
  • Respiratory Syncytial Viruses / immunology
  • Th2 Cells / immunology
  • Time Factors
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / adverse effects*
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / immunology
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / pharmacology

Substances

  • Antigens, Viral
  • Interleukin-5
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Inactivated
  • Formaldehyde
  • Interferon-gamma
  • Ovalbumin