A monoclonal antibody directed against the amino terminal of rat phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) was used to localize PDE10A in multiple central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral tissues from mouse, rat, dog, cynomolgus macaque, and human. PDE10A immunoreactivity is strongly expressed in the CNS of these species with limited expression in peripheral tissues. Within the brain, strong immunoreactivity is present in both neuronal cell bodies and neuropil of the striatum, in striatonigral and striatopallidal white matter tracks, and in the substantia nigra and globus pallidus. Outside the brain, PDE10A immunoreactivity is less intense, and distribution is limited to few tissues such as the testis, epididymal sperm, and enteric ganglia. These data demonstrate that PDE10A is an evolutionarily conserved phosphodiesterase highly expressed in the brain but with restricted distribution in the periphery in multiple mammalian species.