Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common valvular disease requiring valve replacement with a prevalence of 2-4% in adults greater than or equal to 65 years of age. There is increasing evidence that AS is an active inflammatory process that is highly regulated, displaying multiple hallmarks of atherosclerosis. Clinically, the definite therapy of advanced AS is prosthetic valve replacement. Herein, bioprosthetic tissue valves (BPs) possess superior thromboresistant and hemodynamic properties compared with mechanical valves. However, cusp degeneration and calcification also limit their long-term outcome. The pathogenesis of BP calcification as well as that of native valves is still poorly understood. Recent studies suggest a similar valvular pathology, that underlies both types of valvular degeneration, but also an even more important role of inflammatory and repair processes in the case of BP degeneration.