Here we retrospectively examine the efficacy of two antibody induction regimens using Zenapax or Thymoglobulin in patients with positive complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatches (CDC-CMXs) desensitized with IVIG (intravenous immunoglobulin). Between January 1999 and March 2005, 97 patients with (+) CDC-CMXs received kidney transplants (43 deceased donors/54 living donors). All patients received at least 2 g/kg IVIG (maximum four doses) until an acceptable CMX was obtained. Patients were divided into two groups: 1. IVIG + Zenapax (n = 58), 2. IVIG + Thymoglobulin (n = 39). A total of 94% of patients in Group 1 and 84% in G2 have at least 2 years of follow up. Patient and graft survival was 96%/84% in Group 1 and 100%/90% in Group 2, p = NS. The number and severity of AR episodes were similar (36% Group 1 vs. 31% Group 2, p = NS) as was the incidence of C4d (+) antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) (Banff Grade II/III) (22% Group 1 vs. 21% Group 2). Mean serum creatinines (SCrs) at 24 months were similar (Group 1: 1.4 +/- 0.7 vs. G2: 1.5 +/- 0.7 mg/dL). Induction therapy with Zenapax or Thymoglobulin results in excellent patient, graft survival and graft function at 2 years. There was no increased risk of viral infections or malignancies with either agent. Neither agent was effective in reducing the incidence of AMR.