Tobacco consumption and its association with illicit drug use among men in Bangladesh

Addiction. 2006 Aug;101(8):1178-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2006.01514.x.


Aims: This study examined the association of tobacco consumption (smoking and chewing) with illicit drug use among Bangladesh males.

Design: Cross-sectional survey data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2004 were used.

Setting: Bangladesh.

Participants: A total of 4297 males aged 15-54 years.

Measurements: Age, education, religion, marital status, place of residence; tobacco consumption such as cigarette and bidi smoking, chewing sada, pata, tobacco leaves, gul, betel quid with zarda; taking illicit drugs such as ganja, charas, heroin, pethedine, phensidyl; having sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

Findings: Overall prevalence of tobacco consumption was 59%. Bidi smoking (29.6%), cigarette smoking (27.8%) and chewing betel quid with tobacco/zarda (17.5%) were predominant. Overall prevalence of illicit drug use was 4%. Ganja was the main drug (3%), followed by phensidyl (0.8%), heroin (0.3%) and charas (0.3%). Age, education, place of residence, marital status, having STDs, premarital and extra-marital sex were associated significantly with tobacco smoking. Almost all variables were also associated significantly with illicit drug use. Smoking cigarettes and bidi and eating tobacco leaves/shada pata/gul showed significantly positive associations with illicit drug use when adjusted for other variables.

Conclusions: Tobacco consumption is common and associated positively with the illicit drug use among males in Bangladesh.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Bangladesh / epidemiology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Residence Characteristics
  • Rural Health
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Substance-Related Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / epidemiology
  • Urban Health