Multivariate models of health-related utility and the fear of hypoglycaemia in people with diabetes

Curr Med Res Opin. 2006 Aug;22(8):1523-34. doi: 10.1185/030079906X115757.


Aim: The aim was to statistically model the degree of fear of hypoglycaemia experienced by people with diabetes, and then model the resulting change in health-related utility associated with differing severity and frequency of hypoglycaemia.

Methods: The study used pooled data from two previous postal surveys among subjects with confirmed diabetes conducted in Cardiff, UK (n = 1305 responses). The fear of hypoglycaemia was characterised using the Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey (HFS [eight question worry sub-scale only]), and health-related utility using the EQ5D(index). The data were then analysed using univariate and multivariate analysis.

Results: Following detailed preliminary analysis, a two-stage approach was used since fear was important when estimating the EQ5D(index). Fear was then modelled as a function of the severity and frequency of hypoglycaemia while controlling for other factors such as diabetes-related complications. Each severe hypoglycaemic event resulted in a change of 5.881 units on the HFS. One or more symptomatic hypoglycaemic events over the same period results in a corresponding change of 1.773 units on the HFS. A 1 unit increase on the HFS results in a 0.008 unit decrease on the EQ5D(index).

Conclusion: While controlling for other factors, the fear of hypoglycaemia was an important determinant of health-related utility. The magnitude of fear of hypoglycaemia was associated with the severity and frequency of hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia was associated with a considerable decrement in health-related utility as a function of increased fear. Measures should be taken to minimise the severity and frequency of hypoglycaemia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Data Collection
  • Diabetes Complications / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Complications / psychology
  • Diabetes Mellitus / psychology*
  • Fear*
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / analysis
  • Health Status*
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemia / complications*
  • Hypoglycemia / epidemiology
  • Hypoglycemia / psychology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Theoretical*
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Prevalence
  • Severity of Illness Index


  • Glycated Hemoglobin A