Subject recruitment for cancer control studies in an adverse environment

Cancer Nurs. Jul-Aug 2006;29(4):291-9; quiz 300-1. doi: 10.1097/00002820-200607000-00007.


Subject recruitment in an adverse environment prompted researchers to identify a novel method to gain a different perspective on the problem. Lewin's Model of Change was used in a post hoc examination of recruitment strategies from 5 cancer control studies of breast or prostate cancer. Based on this evaluation, driving and restraining forces in recruitment were identified. Lessons learned and recommendations are discussed based on this evaluation. Five categories of restrainers were identified from this evaluation and include sociocultural, institutional, individuals, budget, and study design. Conversely, only 3 categories of drivers were elucidated by the examination: sociocultural, institutional, and individuals. Lessons and recommendations ranged from addressing institutional barriers to capitalizing on public relations. Researchers entering a new environment for recruitment would benefit from using Lewin's force field analysis before writing a proposal or implementing a project. This approach better directs energy and resources and enhances the ability of the investigator to maintain a broad, less biased perspective.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Breast Neoplasms / prevention & control*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Models, Psychological
  • Nursing Research
  • Patient Selection*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / prevention & control*
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic*
  • Social Marketing*
  • South Carolina