Prevention of cardiovascular events in end-stage renal disease: results of a randomized trial of fosinopril and implications for future studies

Kidney Int. 2006 Oct;70(7):1318-24. doi: 10.1038/ Epub 2006 Jul 19.


Cardiovascular events (CVEs) are the leading cause of death in chronic hemodialysis patients. Results of trials in non-end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients cannot be extrapolated to patients with ESRD. It is critical to test cardiovascular therapies in these high-risk patients who are usually excluded from major cardiovascular trials. The study objective was to evaluate the effect of fosinopril on CVEs in patients with ESRD. Eligible patients were randomized to fosinopril 5 mg titrated to 20 mg daily (n=196) or placebo (n=201) plus conventional therapy for 24 months. The primary end point was combined fatal and nonfatal first major CVEs (cardiovascular death, resuscitated death, nonfatal stroke, heart failure, myocardial infarction, or revascularization). No significant benefit for fosinopril was observed in the intent to treat analysis (n=397) after adjusting for independent predictors of CVEs (RR=0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-1.26, P=0.35). The per protocol secondary supportive analysis (n=380) found a trend towards benefit for fosinopril (adjusted RR=0.79 (95% CI 0.59-1.1, P=0.099)). In the patients who were hypertensive at baseline, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly decreased in the fosinopril as compared to the placebo group. After adjustment for risk factors, trends were observed suggesting fosinopril may be associated with a lower risk of CVEs. These trends may have become statistically significant had the sample size been larger, and these findings warrant further study.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Evaluation Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / administration & dosage
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Antihypertensive Agents / administration & dosage
  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Clinical Protocols
  • Confidence Intervals
  • Data Interpretation, Statistical
  • Female
  • Forecasting
  • Fosinopril / administration & dosage
  • Fosinopril / therapeutic use*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / drug therapy*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy
  • Male
  • Placebos
  • Renal Dialysis
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Placebos
  • Fosinopril