Patients on maintenance peritoneal dialysis (PD) are frequently complicated with volume overload. In this study, we sought to evaluate troponin T testing alone or in combination with echocardiographic measures in predicting cardiovascular congestion in PD patients. This was a prospective study of 222 chronic PD patients with echocardiography and measurement of serum troponin T carried out at baseline. Patients were followed for 3 years or until death. The end point was first episode of cardiovascular congestion. Troponin T emerged as an independent predictor of cardiovascular congestion (hazard ratio, 2.98, 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.19-7.42) in a multivariable Cox regression model, including also left ventricular mass index (LVMi) and ejection fraction (EF). Patients with troponin T>median (0.06 microg/l) and EF<or=50% and patients with troponin T>median but EF>50% had a 3.10-fold (95% CI, 1.71-5.63) and 1.88-fold (95% CI, 1.05-3.38) adjusted risk of cardiovascular congestion, respectively, than those with troponin T<or=median and EF>50%. Patients with troponin T>median and LVMi>or=median (96.23 g/m2.7) had a 2.68-fold (95% CI, 1.39-5.19) adjusted risk of cardiovascular congestion than those with troponin T<or=median and LVMi <median. In conclusion, troponin T predicts cardiovascular congestion in chronic PD patients without acute myocardial ischemia and provides incremental prognostic value for cardiovascular congestion when used in combination with LVM and EF. This easily available parameter adds significant value to echocardiography in identifying PD patients at risk of cardiovascular congestion.