To describe clinical, pulmonary function, and chest tomography profiles in a 5-year follow-up of infants with adenovirus pneumonia and determine the factors that potentially contributed to the development of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO). We prospectively assessed 45 hospitalized infants with adenovirus pneumonia with additional follow-up for 5 years. At the end of the study, pulmonary function by impulse oscillometry technique (IOS) and chest tomography were performed in the 38 surviving patients (mean 5.7 years of age). We divided the population between those who developed chest tomography evidence of BO and those who did not. Most of the children developed adenovirus infection before 2 years of age. During the 5 years of follow-up, almost half (47.4%) developed BO. Children who developed BO had significantly more respiratory compromise (intensive care admission, need for mechanical ventilation and for oxygen therapy, and systemic corticosteroid and beta agonist use) during their adenovirus pneumonia episode than those who did not develop BO. Only 33.3% of children with BO had normal impedance compared with 85% in the no BO group. Children who developed BO had significantly higher levels of Zrs, R5, X5 and predicted Zrs, R5, and X5 and frequency. However, there were no differences in the beta 2 agonist response between the children with and without BO (94% vs. 80%, respectively). This study represents the spectra of adenovirus pneumonia ranging from relatively mild to severe and fatal cases. Children with severe pulmonary compromise are usually more prone to develop BO.
(c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.