Global analysis of gene expression in Xenopus hindlimbs during stage-dependent complete and incomplete regeneration

Dev Dyn. 2006 Oct;235(10):2667-85. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.20897.


Xenopus laevis tadpoles are capable of limb regeneration after amputation, in a process that initially involves the formation of a blastema. However, Xenopus has full regenerative capacity only through premetamorphic stages. We have used the Affymetrix Xenopus laevis Genome Genechip microarray to perform a large-scale screen of gene expression in the regeneration-complete, stage 53 (st53), and regeneration-incomplete, stage 57 (st57), hindlimbs at 1 and 5 days postamputation. Through an exhaustive reannotation of the Genechip and a variety of comparative bioinformatic analyses, we have identified genes that are differentially expressed between the regeneration-complete and -incomplete stages, detected the transcriptional changes associated with the regenerating blastema, and compared these results with those of other regeneration researchers. We focus particular attention on striking transcriptional activity observed in genes associated with patterning, stress response, and inflammation. Overall, this work provides the most comprehensive views yet of a regenerating limb and different transcriptional compositions of regeneration-competent and deficient tissues.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Gene Expression / genetics*
  • Gene Expression Profiling / methods
  • Hindlimb / metabolism*
  • Hindlimb / physiology
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods
  • Regeneration / genetics*
  • Regeneration / physiology
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods
  • Xenopus Proteins / genetics
  • Xenopus laevis / genetics*
  • Xenopus laevis / physiology


  • Xenopus Proteins