Impact of creatine kinase correction on the predictive value of S-100B after mild traumatic brain injury

Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2006;24(3):163-72.


Purpose: To validate a correction factor for the extracranial release of the astroglial protein, S-100B, based on concomitant creatine kinase (CK) levels.

Methods: The CK- S-100B relationship in non-head injured marathon runners was used to derive a correction factor for the extracranial release of S-100B. This factor was then applied to a separate cohort of 96 mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients in whom both CK and S-100B levels were measured. Corrected S-100B was compared to uncorrected S-100B for the prediction of initial head CT, three-month headache and three-month post concussive syndrome (PCS).

Results: Corrected S-100B resulted in a statistically significant improvement in the prediction of 3-month headache (area under curve [AUC] 0.46 vs 0.52, p=0.02), but not PCS or initial head CT. Using a cutoff that maximizes sensitivity (> or = 90%), corrected S-100B improved the prediction of initial head CT scan (negative predictive value from 75% [95% CI, 2.6%, 67.0%] to 96% [95% CI: 83.5%, 99.8%]).

Conclusions: Although S-100B is overall poorly predictive of outcome, a correction factor using CK is a valid means of accounting for extracranial release. By increasing the proportion of mild TBI patients correctly categorized as low risk for abnormal head CT, CK-corrected S100-B can further reduce the number of unnecessary brain CT scans performed after this injury.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Area Under Curve
  • Brain Injuries / blood*
  • Child
  • Cohort Studies
  • Creatine Kinase / blood*
  • Female
  • Headache / blood
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Post-Concussion Syndrome / blood
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Retrospective Studies
  • S100 Proteins / blood*
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Time Factors
  • Trauma Severity Indices


  • S100 Proteins
  • Creatine Kinase