NUB1 is a potent down-regulator of the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8, because it targets NEDD8 to the proteasome for proteolytic degradation. From results in this study, we found that NUB1 physically interacts with synphilin-1 through its NEDD8-binding site, implying that NUB1 also targets synphilin-1 to the proteasome for degradation. Synphilin-1 is a major component of inclusion bodies found in the brains of patients with neurodegenerative alpha-synucleinopathies, including Parkinson's disease. In this study, we immunostained sections of brains from patients with Parkinson's disease and other alpha-synucleinopathies and demonstrated that NUB1, as well as synphilin-1, accumulates in the inclusion bodies. To define the role of NUB1 in the formation of these inclusion bodies, we performed a co-transfection assay using cultured HEK293 cells. This assay showed that NUB1 suppresses the formation of synphilin-1-positive inclusions. Further, biochemical assays revealed that NUB1 overexpression leads to the proteasomal degradation of synphilin-1. These results and our previous observations suggest that NUB1 indeed targets synphilin-1 to the proteasome for its efficient degradation, which, because of the resultant reduction in synphilin-1, suppresses the formation of synphilin-1-positive inclusions.