Background: Congenital deficiency of factor (F) VIII results in the inherited X-linked bleeding disorder hemophilia A. More than 900 different mutations are reported in the hemophilia A mutation database with the largest number of mutations being single nucleotide substitutions distributed throughout the gene. Complicating the molecular characterization of this disease is the complexity of the F8 gene, the mutational heterogeneity, and technical limitations of the current mutation detection techniques.
Objective: Development of a DNA oligonucleotide microarray-based technique for F8 gene analysis to detect hemophilia A mutations.
Methods: To construct the oligonucleotide DNA microarray system: a total of 720, one base pair overlapping, 25-mer perfect match probes were designed from six exons of the F8 gene. Twenty-two different F8 gene mutations previously identified by CSGE and DNA sequence analysis were tested by using a loss-of-signal analysis approach. Differentially labeled wild type and hemophilic samples were co-hybridized to the array. Sequence alterations were detected by quantifying relative losses of test sample hybridization signals to the perfectly matched probes.
Results: A total of 22 different F8 mutations were tested. To test the sensitivity of the system, a blinded study was performed on 16 of the samples. F8 gene mutations can be detected with 96% efficiency with this microarray system.
Conclusion: This proof-of-principle study has demonstrated that a F8 DNA microarray platform is an alternative gene mutation analysis approach that has a high sensitivity, and reproducibility. The methodology is, however, expensive and time consuming, and with the reduction in sequencing costs, direct sequencing is now the most cost and time efficient strategy for hemophilia A mutation analysis.