Paraoxonase (PON1, EC 188.8.131.52) is an esterase protein which plays multifunctional role in metabolism. Therefore, in this study the effects of commonly used antibiotics, namely sodium ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, rifamycin SV and clindamycin phosphate, on human PON1 were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Human serum paraoxonase (PON1) was separately purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The in vitro effects of the antibiotics in purifying human serum paraoxonase was determined using paraoxon as a substrate, and the IC50 values of these drugs exhibiting inhibition effects were found from graphs of hydratase activity % by plotting the concentration of the drugs. It was determined that sodium ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and clindamycin phosphate were effective inhibitors on human serum PON1, and the inhibition kinetics of interaction of sodium ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and clindamycin phosphate with the human serum PON1 was also determined, with the Ki of sodium ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and clindamycin phosphate being 0.00714+/-0.00068, 6.5x10(-6)+/-4.59x10(-7), 0.0291+/-0.0077 mM, respectively. The in vivo effects of the antibiotics on paraoxonase enzyme activity in mouse serum and liver PON1 were also investigated. Mouse liver PON1 activity showed a statistically significant change at 2, 4 and 6 h of drug application in vivo. Sodium ampicillin and clindamycin phosphate exhibited about 80% mouse liver PON1 at 2 or 4 h (p: 0.034, 0.003 and 0.021, respectively). In addition, ciprofloxacin and rifamycin SV only showed inhibition at 4 h incubation. Sodium ampicillin (17.12 mg/kg) lead to a significant decrease in mouse serum PON1 after 4 h drug administration. Ciprofloxacin (3.2 mg/kg), rifamycin SV (3.56 mg/kg) and clindamycin phosphate (2.143 mg/kg) did not exhibit any inhibition effect for the mouse serum PON1, in vivo.