This 16-year retrospective study reports the data on 456 consecutive patients with 557 peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) between 1989 and 2004. Most patients were men (74%) and the mean age was 32.4 years. In 83% of cases the PNIs were isolated; combined lesions most commonly involved the ulnar and median nerves. Upper-limb PNIs occurred in 73.5% of cases; the ulnar nerve was most often injured, either singly or in combination. Vehicle accidents affecting the brachial plexus or radial, sciatic, facial, and peroneal nerves were the most common cause of injury. Penetrating trauma commonly affected the ulnar and median nerves; falls and gunshot wounds frequently affected the ulnar, radial, and median nerves; and sports injuries, particularly soccer, affected mainly the peroneal and tibial nerves. More than half of the brachial plexus lesions after vehicular accidents were from motorcycle crashes.