Foreskin development before adolescence in 2149 schoolboys

Int J Urol. 2006 Jul;13(7):968-70. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-2042.2006.01449.x.


Background: We examined the external genitalia of 2149 elementary schoolboys in the suburban area of Taichung in Taiwan for an understanding of foreskin development before adolescence.

Methods: The study's subjects comprised 692 first-grade boys, 725 fourth-grade boys, and 732 seventh-grade boys. The foreskin's condition was classified as: type I (normal prepuce), type II (adhesion of prepuce), type III (partial phimosis), type IV (phimosis) and type V (circumcised foreskin). Other abnormalities of the genitalia also were recorded. All of the examinations were performed by the same urologist.

Results: The incidence of type I foreskin was 8.2% in first-grade boys, 21.0% in fourth-grade boys, and 58.1% in seventh-grade boys. The incidence of type IV foreskin was 17.1% in first-grade boys, 9.7% in fourth-grade boys, and 1.2% in seventh-grade boys. Only one boy had balanoposthitis. Other abnormalities included inguinal hernia (n = 2), hydrocele (n = 12), cryptorchitism (n = 8), varicocele (n = 22), and subcoronal-type hypospadia (n = 1).

Conclusions: Physiological phimosis declines with age. Most boys with phimosis in this study did not require treatment.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Penis / growth & development*
  • Phimosis / epidemiology
  • Phimosis / etiology
  • Phimosis / pathology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Taiwan / epidemiology