DNA microarray technology was used to evaluate differential gene expression in a susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate and a resistant clinical derivative. Nineteen genes were up-regulated in the resistant isolate when compared with the susceptible isolate. An ABC transporter-related gene, ycjV, was strongly over-expressed, suggesting the existence of a novel active efflux mechanism. Approximately half of the up-regulated genes coded for ribosomal proteins, or proteins involved in tRNA metabolism. Among 33 downregulated genes, almost one-third were related to nitrogen metabolism. A possible role of fitness in the development of antimicrobial resistance is suggested.