Renal osteodystrophy (ROD) develops as the early stages of chronic renal failure (CRF) and covers a spectrum of bone changes observed in the uraemic patient, which extend from high remodelling bone disease (frequently known as osteitis fibrosa) to low turnover, or adynamic disease. Between these two extremes there are also cases of bone mineralization compromised in variable degrees, as is the case of 'mixed bone disease' and osteomalacia. The dynamic process of bone remodelling is compromised in CRF, and a positive or negative bone balance can be observed in uraemic patients. In addition to the classic modulators of bone remodelling, like parathyroid hormone, calcitriol and calcitonin, other factors were recently identified as significant modulators of osteoblast and osteoclast activation in uraemic patients. In fact, different cytokines and growth factors, acting at an autocrine or paracrine level, seem to play a relevant role in the bone and mineral changes observed in uraemia. Recently, observations have been made of the development of more sensitive and specific techniques to assay different biochemical markers of bone turnover and mineral metabolism. Analogously, new contributions of conventional bone histology, bone immunocytochemistry and molecular biology, which enabled the understanding of some etiopathogenic mechanisms of ROD, were observed.