Hereditary hyperekplexia is a neuromotor disorder characterized by exaggerated startle reflexes and muscle stiffness in the neonate. The disease has been associated with mutations in the glycine receptor subunit genes GLRA1 and GLRB. Here, we describe mutations within the neuronal glycine transporter 2 gene (GLYT2, or SLC6A5, ) of hyperekplexia patients, whose symptoms cannot be attributed to glycine receptor mutations. One of the GLYT2 mutations identified causes truncation of the transporter protein and a complete loss of transport function. Our results are consistent with GLYT2 being a disease gene in human hyperekplexia.