Functions of vitamin D, retinoic acid, and dexamethasone in mouse adipose-derived mesenchymal cells

Tissue Eng. 2006 Jul;12(7):2031-40. doi: 10.1089/ten.2006.12.2031.


Adipose-derived mesenchymal cells (AMCs) offer great promise for tissue engineering of bone. Previously, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, retinoic acid (RA), and dexamethasone had been shown to promote osteogenesis in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells (BMSCs). To study the osteogenic characteristics of mouse AMCs, we applied these 3 hormones alone and in combination to the AMCs and examined markers of osteogenic differentiation. Interestingly, vitamin D and RA demonstrated a consistent, dose-dependent enhancement of osteogenesis and upregulated osteoblast specific markers including osteopontin and osteocalcin. However, in AMCs, dexamethasone clearly inhibited osteogenic differentiation in a dose dependent fashion and greatly increased the adipogenic marker peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAgamma). In summary, we show in vitro that vitamin D and RA are potential candidates to serve as enhancers of osteogenesis of AMCs and may be incorporated into future cell-based strategies for bone tissue engineering.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adipose Tissue / cytology
  • Adipose Tissue / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Antigens, Differentiation / biosynthesis
  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Bone Density Conservation Agents / pharmacology*
  • Calcitriol / pharmacology*
  • Cell Differentiation / drug effects
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Dexamethasone / pharmacology*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Osteogenesis / drug effects*
  • Tissue Engineering
  • Tretinoin / pharmacology*
  • Up-Regulation / drug effects


  • Antigens, Differentiation
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Bone Density Conservation Agents
  • Tretinoin
  • Dexamethasone
  • Calcitriol