Intravenous iron therapy is instrumental in the management of anemia in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Iron is available in several different preparations, with slight differences in the pharmacology of each. Given the importance of intravenous iron in the management of these patients, clinicians should be aware of the potential risks associated with it. Intravenous iron has effects on host immunity that raise concerns about clinical infection risk. Iron preparations appear to increase oxidative stress in these patients, which has important implications for cardiovascular disease states. Lastly, the effects of intravenous iron on liver disease are largely unknown.