The rat prolactin gene family locus: species-specific gene family expansion

Mamm Genome. 2006 Aug;17(8):858-77. doi: 10.1007/s00335-006-0010-1. Epub 2006 Aug 4.


In the rat there is a large family of paralogous genes related to prolactin (PRL). Members of the PRL family are expressed in cell- and temporal-specific patterns in the anterior pituitary, uterus, and placenta. An overriding feature of the PRL family is its association with pregnancy. In this investigation, we used information derived from the public rat genome database as a tool for identifying new members of the rat PRL family. The entire rat PRL gene family locus spans approximately 1.7 megabases (Mb) on Chromosome 17. Genes possessed either 5- or 6-exon organization patterns. We provide information on three newly identified genes orthologous to previously identified members of the mouse PRL gene family [placental lactogen-Ialpha (PL-Ialpha), PL-Ibeta, and proliferin (PLF)] and a new member of the PRL family, termed PRL-like protein-P (PLP-P). Information is also presented on the existence of multiple PLP-M transcripts, which are generated by alternative splicing. Expansion of the PRL family has occurred independently in rodents versus the cow and does not exist in the human and dog. Elucidation of the rat PRL gene family locus provides tools for studying the genetics and biology of the rat PRL family and new insights into species-specific gene family expansion.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Exons
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Glycoproteins / genetics
  • Glycoproteins / metabolism
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Multigene Family*
  • Phylogeny
  • Placenta / metabolism
  • Placenta / ultrastructure
  • Pregnancy Proteins / metabolism
  • Prolactin / genetics*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Species Specificity
  • Tissue Distribution


  • Glycoproteins
  • Pregnancy Proteins
  • Prl2a1 protein, rat
  • Prl3c1 protein, rat
  • Prolactin