Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae are the most common house dust mites and are among the most common sources of indoor allergens worldwide. These species are very common in humid regions, where most allergic individuals are sensitized to house dust mites. Specific immunotherapy with mite extracts has demonstrated clinical benefits in several double-blind, placebo-controlled trials that are included in recent reviews of subcutaneous immunotherapy, including pediatric and adult patients with rhinoconjunctivitis and or asthma. Most successful studies of mite immunotherapy have used native allergen extracts adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide, or chemically modified mite-allergen extracts. Several studies have also shown efficacy using sublingual immunotherapy in pediatric and adult patients with asthma and/or rhinitis. Additionally, the efficacy of subcutaneous immunotherapy has been demonstrated in patients with atopic dermatitis, although more double-blind, placebo-controlled studies are needed. Based on several studies, it cannot be concluded that mite immunotherapy is more dangerous or safer than immunotherapy with grasses, epithelia, or animal epithelia. Because the delivery of high doses of allergen carries with it the risk for immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated events, several methods have been developed to reduce specific IgE binding to mite-allergen extracts. An important challenge for future mite immunotherapy modalities is the delivery of relatively high doses without a significant risk for severe reactions.