Incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE), which had been considered a relatively rare disease in Japan, has been on the increase in recent years as eating habits have become more similar to those of the West. We have investigated the recent incidence data of perioperative pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) in Japan and have established guidelines for the prevention of VTE. Recommended thromboprophylaxis is early ambulation for low risk group, elastic stocking (ES) or intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) for moderate risk group, IPC or low dose unfractionated heparin (LDUH) for high risk group, and LDUH + IPC or LDUH + ES for highest risk group. The management fee for PTE prophylaxis was established and covered by health insurance in April 2004. Surprisingly, the incidence of perioperative PTE decreased just after this guideline was issued. After accumulation of further evidence and application of pharmacological agents, such as low molecular weight heparin, we will establish the advanced guidelines in the future.