Relationship of CSF leukocytosis to compartmentalized changes in MCP-1/CCL2 in the CSF of HIV-infected patients undergoing interruption of antiretroviral therapy

J Neuroimmunol. 2006 Oct;179(1-2):180-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2006.06.018. Epub 2006 Aug 9.


Although monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1)/CCL2 is believed to mediate trafficking of HIV-activated leukocytes into the CNS, its role has not been studied directly in humans. To evaluate MCP-1's effects on CNS leukocyte infiltration, we measured CSF leukocytes and MCP-1 levels in serial plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from subjects who experienced large increases in viral load after interrupting antiretrovirals. Following large increases in CSF MCP-1, CSF leukocytosis (15-166 cells/microL) developed in 4 of 6 subjects. Both initial MCP-1 levels and subsequent changes were 3-fold larger in CSF than plasma. The magnitude and timing of changes suggested that MCP-1 triggers the development of CSF pleocytosis.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-Retroviral Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid / cytology
  • Chemokine CCL2 / blood*
  • Chemokine CCL2 / cerebrospinal fluid*
  • Chemotaxis, Leukocyte / physiology
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • HIV Infections / blood*
  • HIV Infections / cerebrospinal fluid*
  • Humans
  • Leukocytosis / cerebrospinal fluid*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged


  • Anti-Retroviral Agents
  • CCL2 protein, human
  • Chemokine CCL2