Effect of a short-term diet and exercise intervention on inflammatory/anti-inflammatory properties of HDL in overweight/obese men with cardiovascular risk factors

J Appl Physiol (1985). 2006 Dec;101(6):1727-32. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00345.2006. Epub 2006 Aug 10.


There is significant debate regarding high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and high-fiber, low-fat diets. The present study was designed to examine the effects of lifestyle modification on the inflammatory/anti-inflammatory properties of HDL in obese men (n = 22) with metabolic syndrome factors. Subjects were placed on a high-fiber, low-fat diet in a 3-wk residential program where food was provided ad libitum and daily aerobic exercise was performed. Fasting blood was drawn pre- and postintervention for serum lipids, lipid hydroperoxides, and the ability of subject HDL to alter low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-induced monocyte chemotactic activity (MCA) in a human artery wall coculture. Induction of MCA by control LDL in the absence of HDL was normalized to 1.0. Values >1.0 after HDL addition indicated proinflammatory HDL; values <1.0 indicated anti-inflammatory HDL. In addition, proteins involved in regulating HDL function, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), paraoxonase 1 and 3, and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase were measured. After 3 wk, decreases in total-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-C, triglycerides, total cholesterol-to-HDL cholesterol ratio, and lipid hydroperoxides (all P < 0.05) were noted. The HDL inflammatory index decreased (P < 0.05) from pro- (1.14 +/- 0.11) to anti-inflammatory (0.94 +/- 0.09). ApoA-I level and paraoxonase activity did not change; however, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase activity increased (P < 0.05). Despite a quantitative reduction in HDL-C, HDL converted from pro- to anti-inflammatory. These data indicate that intensive lifestyle modification improves the function of HDL even in the face of reduced levels, suggesting increased turnover of proinflammatory HDL.

Publication types

  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Coronary Artery Disease / etiology*
  • Coronary Artery Disease / immunology
  • Coronary Artery Disease / prevention & control
  • Diet Therapy / methods*
  • Exercise Therapy / methods*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / immunology*
  • Lipoproteins, HDL / immunology*
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / complications
  • Metabolic Syndrome / immunology
  • Metabolic Syndrome / therapy
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / complications
  • Obesity / immunology*
  • Obesity / therapy*
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Lipoproteins, HDL