Advances in medical treatment have prolonged the lives of children with Hurler syndrome or mucopolysaccharidosis I requiring increased attention to the assessment of their long-term outcomes and functional abilities. Adaptive functions are critical for understanding functional outcomes after treatment and developing focused interventions. We investigated the development of various adaptive functions in children who have had hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) for Hurler syndrome and risk factors that are associated with the development of these functions. We examined the development of 41 children who had 3 or more Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales records assessed before and after transplant. Communication, daily living skills, socialization, and motor functions were measured. While standard scores decline over time, development of skills continue with a slower than average rate compared with peers. A cross-sectional nontransplanted comparison group showed more deficits after age 2 years than the transplanted group. In contrast to cognitive ability, age at transplant was not significantly associated with ultimate adaptive level. Baseline cognitive level before HSCT and growth of cognition after HSCT were associated with adaptive functions especially for communication and daily living skills. Socialization was predicted by cumulative medical risk factors, likely due to restricted social exposure in children with complicated transplant courses. Overall, measurement of adaptive behaviors demonstrated that HSCT allows long-term slow improvement of functional outcomes for children with Hurler syndrome. Children with Hurler syndrome with good cognitive levels before HSCT and continued growth of cognition after HSCT show good adaptive functions. Although cognitive and orthopedic problems as well as medical complications limit adaptive ability, identifying these problems early allow beneficial targeted interventions.