Objectives: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent stimulus of angiogenesis that has an important role in many human malignancies including prostate carcinoma (PCa). We evaluated the role of the functional VEGF polymorphisms as genetic markers for PCa susceptibility and prognosis.
Methods: The study included 101 patients with PCa and [corrected] 100 age-matched healthy men. The VEGF genotypes -1154G>A were identified by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) and the genotypes -634G>C and 936C>T were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR).
Results: A negative association was found between VEGF -1154AA genotype and PCa risk (OR=0.27; P=0.009). Furthermore, the presence of the VEGF -1154A allele appeared to be associated with a decreased [corrected] risk of higher tumor grade (OR=0.37; P=0.01). A significant increased risk of prostate cancer was associated with the VEGF -634 (GC+CC) combined genotype (OR=1.95; P=0.02). The VEGF -634C allele was associated with the aggressive phenotype of prostate cancer as defined by the high histological grade (OR=3.48; P=0.007). The VEGF -1154A/-634G haplotype was negatively associated with PCa risk (OR=0.48; P=0.005) and high tumor grade compared to low grade (OR=0.37; P=0.02).
Conclusions: Genetic variations in the VEGF may predict not only PCa risk but also tumor aggressiveness.