Little is known about sex work in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, despite rapid increases in HIV infection. Consistent client condom use and prior HIV testing are described among 448 female sex workers (FSW) completing a self-administered questionnaire, health provider interview, and HIV testing between April 2003 and March 2004. Participants were recruited through outreach workers using modified snowball sampling. Consistent client condom use was more likely for FSW who were married, knew condoms prevent HIV, and from countries in south Central Asia. Prior HIV testing was less likely for FSW younger than 21 years, who shared drugs with clients, initiated sex work at 18 years or less and had engaged in sex work less than 2 years. Low rates of condom use, particularly by those with risky drug behaviors, indicate that targeted risk-reduction interventions are urgently needed.