We reviewed the literature on accessibility and outcomes of organ transplantation in individuals with mental retardation (MR) and on the prevalence of organ donation in this population. Six centers have published outcome data on renal transplantation in 34 individuals with MR. The one- and three-yr patient survival rates were 100% and 90%, respectively. The studies reported good compliance with post-transplant medications due to consistent support from family members or caregivers. The outcome studies for liver and heart transplantation among these individuals are limited. The literature on organ donation in individuals with MR is mostly concerned with legal issues. The courts generally permit organ donations when such is in the best interests of the donor.