Yeast genes involved in response to lactic acid and acetic acid: acidic conditions caused by the organic acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures induce expression of intracellular metal metabolism genes regulated by Aft1p

FEMS Yeast Res. 2006 Sep;6(6):924-36. doi: 10.1111/j.1567-1364.2006.00089.x.


Using two types of genome-wide analysis to investigate yeast genes involved in response to lactic acid and acetic acid, we found that the acidic condition affects metal metabolism. The first type is an expression analysis using DNA microarrays to investigate 'acid shock response' as the first step to adapt to an acidic condition, and 'acid adaptation' by maintaining integrity in the acidic condition. The other is a functional screening using the nonessential genes deletion collection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The expression analysis showed that genes involved in stress response, such as YGP1, TPS1 and HSP150, were induced under the acid shock response. Genes such as FIT2, ARN1 and ARN2, involved in metal metabolism regulated by Aft1p, were induced under the acid adaptation. AFT1 was induced under acid shock response and under acid adaptation with lactic acid. Moreover, green fluorescent protein-fused Aft1p was localized to the nucleus in cells grown in media containing lactic acid, acetic acid, or hydrochloric acid. Both analyses suggested that the acidic condition affects cell wall architecture. The depletion of cell-wall components encoded by SED1, DSE2, CTS1, EGT2, SCW11, SUN4 and YNL300W and histone acetyltransferase complex proteins encoded by YID21, EAF3, EAF5, EAF6 and YAF9 increased resistance to lactic acid. Depletion of the cell-wall mannoprotein Sed1p provided resistance to lactic acid, although the expression of SED1 was induced by exposure to lactic acid. Depletion of vacuolar membrane H+-ATPase and high-osmolarity glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase proteins caused acid sensitivity. Moreover, our quantitative PCR showed that expression of PDR12 increased under acid shock response with lactic acid and decreased under acid adaptation with hydrochloric acid.

MeSH terms

  • Acetic Acid / pharmacology*
  • Adaptation, Physiological
  • Antifungal Agents / pharmacology
  • Cell Nucleus / chemistry
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal*
  • Genes, Reporter
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins / genetics
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins / metabolism
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Lactic Acid / pharmacology*
  • Metals / metabolism*
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / genetics
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism
  • Regulon / physiology
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / drug effects*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / genetics
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / metabolism
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism


  • AFT1 protein, S cerevisiae
  • Antifungal Agents
  • Metals
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins
  • Lactic Acid
  • Acetic Acid