The carcinogenic potential of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) was evaluated in cynomolgus monkeys. Monkeys received IQ, beginning at the age of one year, at doses of 10 or 20 mg/kg by gavage. Thus far, IQ has induced hepatocellular carcinoma in three monkeys with a latent period of 27 to 37 months. Metastases to the lung occurred in two of the three monkeys. Microscopically, the hepatocellular carcinoma in all three cases demonstrated a trabecular pattern. These data demonstrate that IQ is a potent carcinogen in nonhuman primates and support the idea that it is a potential carcinogen for humans.