Systemic disease among cases of fatal opioid toxicity

Addiction. 2006 Sep;101(9):1299-305. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2006.01495.x.


Aims: To determine levels of systemic disease among cases of death due to opioid toxicity.

Design: Analysis of coronial cases.

Setting: Sydney, Australia.

Cases: A total of 841 cases of death due to opioid toxicity (1 January 1998-31 December 2002).

Findings: Ventricular hypertrophy was present in 5.9% of cases and severe coronary artery atherosclerosis in 5.7%. Severe coronary pathology was more pronounced among older cases. Pre-existing bronchopneumonia was present in 13.2% of cases. Hepatic pathology was the most common type of pathology, and was far more marked among older cases. Cirrhosis was present in 25.3% of those aged > 44 years. Levels of renal pathology were comparatively low, but were related significantly to increasing age. Systemic disease in more than one organ system was present in 24.4% of cases, and was related to increasing age (44% of those aged > 44 years). The only pathology for which gender was an independent predictor among opioid cases was ventricular hypertrophy, more common in males.

Conclusions: Systemic disease, most prominently liver disease, is common among fatal opioid toxicity cases, and may be a factor in understanding the dynamics and age demographics of opioid-related death.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Australia / epidemiology
  • Drug Overdose / mortality
  • Female
  • Heart Diseases / complications
  • Heart Diseases / mortality
  • Humans
  • Kidney Diseases / complications
  • Kidney Diseases / mortality
  • Liver Diseases / mortality
  • Lung Diseases / complications
  • Lung Diseases / mortality
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Narcotics
  • Opioid-Related Disorders / complications
  • Opioid-Related Disorders / mortality*


  • Narcotics