Reference values for the timed up and go test: a descriptive meta-analysis

J Geriatr Phys Ther. 2006;29(2):64-8. doi: 10.1519/00139143-200608000-00004.


Background and purpose: The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test is widely employed in the examination of elders, but definitive normative reference values are lacking. This meta-analysis provided such values by consolidating data from multiple studies.

Methods: Studies reporting TUG times for apparently healthy elders were identified through the on-line search of bibliographic databases. Study specifics and data were consolidated and examined for homogeneity.

Results: Twenty-one studies were included in the meta-analysis. The mean (95% confidence interval) TUG time for individuals at least 60 years of age was 9.4 (8.9-9.9) seconds. Although the data contributing to this mean were homogeneous, data for individuals who could be categorized by age were more homogeneous. The mean (95% confidence intervals) for 3 age groups were: 8.1 (7.1-9.0) seconds for 60 to 69 year olds, 9.2 (8.2-10.2) seconds for 70 to 79 years, and 11.3 (10.0-12.7) seconds for 80 to 99 years.

Conclusions: The reference values presented, though obtained from studies with clear differences, provide a standard to which patient performance can be compared. Patients whose performance exceeds the upper limit of reported confidence intervals can be considered to have worse than average performance.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Geriatric Assessment*
  • Humans
  • Locomotion*
  • Reference Values