The accumulation of multiple mutations and alterations in the cancer genome underlies the complexity of cancer phenotypes. A consequence of these alterations is the deregulation of various cell-signalling pathways that control cell function. Molecular-profiling studies, particularly DNA microarray analyses, have the potential to describe this complexity. These studies also provide an opportunity to link pathway deregulation with potential therapeutic strategies. This approach, when coupled with other methods for identifying pathway activation, provides an opportunity to both match individual patients with the most appropriate therapeutic strategy and identify potential options for combination therapy.