Effects of part-set cuing on experienced and novice chess players' reconstruction of a typical chess midgame position

Percept Mot Skills. 2006 Jun;102(3):645-53. doi: 10.2466/pms.102.3.645-653.


A typical midgame chess position was presented to participants for 30 sec. Participants then reconstructed the presented position on a second board from memory. Following a brief distraction phase, participants were asked to reconstruct the position a second time with 0, 6, or 12 of the original pieces present. It was hypothesized that cue presentation during second reconstruction would be more disruptive to experienced players' recall than to novices'. Recall was measured in terms of correct pieces placed, new items generated (reminiscence), and previously recalled items omitted (forgetting). Analysis indicated that cues neither facilitated nor inhibited recall: experienced players performed better than novice players across recall indices, with the exception of reminiscence at which both groups performed similarly.

MeSH terms

  • Cues*
  • Decision Making*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mental Recall*
  • Play and Playthings / psychology*
  • Sports*
  • Time Factors