The influence of rat bile infusion on renal function in rats and the possible role of bile-induced hemolysis in these effects were examined. The hemolytic action of rat bile and some bile salts were determined in vitro. After the i.v. infusion of rat bile (70 mg freeze-dried powder/2.55 ml) into pentobarbitone-anesthetized rats, the urine, sodium and potassium excretion rates were reduced more than half, which was due to the decrease of glomerular filtration rate and increase of tubular water and sodium reabsorption. A fall in blood pressure, a rise in hematocrit, and hemolysis were also found. Infusion of hemolysed (30 microliters RBC) solution produced by distilled water and then made isotonic caused a short-duration increase in renal excretion and glomerular filtration rate, and the blood pressure was unchanged. Infusion of a rat bile-hemolysed solution after removal of bile acids with cholestyramine increased renal excretions at first with reduction thereafter. Infusion of the rat bile-hemolysed solution treated with barium sulfate produced a renal response very similar to rat bile alone. It is proposed that two factors are involved in the renal response after bile infusion, namely bile acid-induced hemolysis producing diuresis with natriuresis, and bile acid-induced antidiuresis and antinatriuresis, possibly due to a direct renal effect.