Dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake and cardiovascular risk

Am J Cardiol. 2006 Aug 21;98(4A):3i-18i. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2005.12.022. Epub 2006 May 30.


Dietary omega-3 fatty acids decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Both epidemiologic and interventional studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on many CVD end points, including all CVD (defined as all coronary artery disease [CAD], fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction [MI], and stroke combined), all CAD, fatal and nonfatal MI, stroke, sudden cardiac death, and all-cause mortality. Much of the evidence comes from studies with fish oil and fish; to a lesser extent, data relate to plant-derived omega-3 fatty acids. Cardioprotective benefits have been observed with daily consumption of as little as 25 to 57 g (approximately 1 to 2 oz) of fish high in omega-3 fatty acids, an intake equivalent to >or=1 fish meal weekly or even monthly, with greater intakes decreasing risk further in a dose-dependent manner, up to about 5 servings per week. Fish, including farm-raised fish and their wild counterparts, are the major dietary sources of the longer-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Sources of plant-derived omega-3 fatty acids include flaxseed, flaxseed oil, walnuts, canola oil, and soybean oil. Because of the remarkable cardioprotective effects of omega-3 fatty acids, consumption of food sources that provide omega-3 fatty acids--especially the longer-chain fatty acids (>or=20 carbons) from marine sources--should be increased in the diet to decrease CVD risk significantly.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / metabolism
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / physiopathology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3 / administration & dosage*
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3 / metabolism
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3 / standards
  • Feeding Behavior*
  • Humans
  • Nutrition Policy
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Risk Assessment / methods
  • United States / epidemiology


  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3