Although low levels of plasma adiponectin were associated with an increase in cardiovascular risk in adults, few data investigated that relationship in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma adiponectin and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy children. This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted in Fleurbaix and Laventie, 2 cities in the north of France. The main outcome measure was the correlations between plasma adiponectin and adiposity variables (the body mass index, the sum of 4 skinfolds, waist circumference [WC], and percent body fat [bioimpedance]), blood pressure, plasma glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and insulin. In 398 children of both sexes, adiponectin was not significantly related to age and pubertal stage. In boys only, adiponectin correlated with WC (r = -0.19; P = .008) and body mass index (r = -0.15; P = .04) but not with other adiposity variables. After taking into account WC, adiponectin was positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol in boys (r = 0.14; P = .05) and girls (r = 0.25; P = .0004), but was not correlated with insulin and homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance in both sexes. These results suggest that, in apparently healthy children, adiponectin is related to the level of HDL-cholesterol independently of fat mass. The relationship between adiponectin and insulin resistance previously reported in obese or diabetic children was not apparent in these subjects and may therefore occur only at later age with fat accumulation.