Background: Oxidative stress and increased inflammation have been reported to be increased in subjects with diabetes and to be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications after myocardial infarction (MI). It is well recognized that red wine has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We examined the effects of moderate red wine intake on echocardiographic parameters of functional cardiac outcome in addition to inflammatory cytokines and nitrotyrosine (oxidative stress marker), in subjects with diabetes after a first uncomplicated MI.
Methods: One hundred and fifteen subjects with diabetes who had sustained a first non-fatal MI were randomized to receive a moderate daily amount of red wine (intervention group) or not (control group). Echocardiographic parameters of ventricular dys-synchrony, circulating levels of nitrotyrosine, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-18 (IL-18) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were investigated at baseline and 12 months after randomization.
Results: After 1 year of diet intervention, concentrations of nitrotyrosine (P < 0.01), CRP (P < 0.01), TNF-alpha (P < 0.01), IL-6 (P < 0.01) and IL-18 (P < 0.01) were increased in the control group compared with the intervention group. In addition, myocardial performance index (P < 0.02) was higher, and transmitral Doppler flow (P < 0.05), pulmonary venous flow analysis (P < 0.02) and ejection fraction (P < 0.05) were lower in the control group, indicating ventricular dys-synchrony. The concentrations of nitrotyrosine, CRP, TNF-alpha and IL-6 were related to echocardiographic parameters of ventricular dys-synchrony.
Conclusions: In subjects with diabetes, red wine consumption, taken with meals, significantly reduces oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as improving cardiac function after MI. Moderate red wine intake with meals may have a beneficial effect in the prevention of cardiovascular complications after MI in subjects with diabetes.