Candida species in stool, symptoms and complaints in general practice--a cross-sectional study of 308 outpatients

Mycoses. 2006 Sep;49(5):415-20. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0507.2006.01244.x.


Patients with unspecific symptoms were sometimes tested for Candida. In case of findings of this yeast-like fungus in their stools they often were labelled with the diagnosis of a "Candida-syndrome". This comprises headache, weakness, flatulence, ravenous appetite for sweets, itching skin and several more unspecific symptoms. All 500 randomly sampled patients in 12 mainly naturopathic practices were asked to take part. In case of participation, they received stool-tubes and questionnaires to be answered during the waiting-time by the patients themselves. We asked for details of lifestyle, diseases and a number of unspecific symptoms. The stool-tubes were sent to a microbiological lab within 24 h after being filled. About one-third of all 308 participants carried Candida albicans in their stools. This finding is regarded as normal. Smoking habits were highly associated to Candida: 45 of the 78 smokers (58%), but only 68 of the 230 (29%) non-smokers were Candida positive, P < 0.0001. Three more results were associated with Candida-positive stools: Candida-vaginitis, allergies against food and allergies in general. Hints of a Candida-syndrome could not be found. The relation with smoking cigarettes is a new result. Associations to Candida-vaginitis and allergies were described before.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Candida / classification
  • Candida / isolation & purification*
  • Candidiasis / epidemiology*
  • Candidiasis / microbiology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Family Practice
  • Feces / microbiology
  • Female
  • Germany / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking
  • Surveys and Questionnaires