A patient with longstanding rheumatoid arthritis (RA) developed swelling in a chronically inflamed knee joint while receiving prolonged methotrexate treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron-emission tomography showed soft tissue swelling with intense tracer uptake. Biopsy confirmed high-grade B-cell lymphoma. He developed complete remission with rituximab plus CEOP. The role of chronic inflammation and methotrexate in the pathogenesis of lymphoma in RA was discussed.